Put the countertop on the base, put the MDF on top of the countertop, and line up the marks you drew on each end of the MDF with the countertop below it. When you have it lined up, clamp things down, and route the edge of the MDF using a 1-1/2" or longer flush-trim bit, with the depth adjusted so the bearing rides on the countertop. I clamped a couple of scraps of doubled MDF at each end to give the router base something extra to ride on at the ends.
2. Did I mention the rain here? How is your shed built? Are flooring and walls sealed to prevent water blowing and leaking in? When we get our summer thunderstorms the winds can whip up the rain pretty good and I even have to make sure garage door is closed sometimes. The shed??? Yea. it gets wet inside no matter how much caulk I use on floor gaps. Mine is on slab and shed not really designed to be waterproof. That being said, even if I got floor sealed it still lets some water in where walls meet roof. Not lots but makes for extreme humidity (or dew point if you prefer) levels.

The front edge of a woodworker’s bench is usually lined with square holes positioned at regular intervals. These holes hold bench dogs and holdfast clamps in place for securing work pieces. Beneath the top of the bench, some cabinetmaker models feature single storage drawers, others several drawers and even cupboards incorporated into a case-like base.
I know, if you had a workbench, you wouldn't be building a workbench. Even so, you'll need some sort of work surface, even if it isn't as stable or capable as a proper bench. The traditional solution is to throw a hollow-core door over a couple of saw horses. The advantage of hollow core doors is that they're flat, stiff, and cheap. I used a folding table and a hollow core door I had bought for a future project.
Chris I blame you for all these altars that are being built today and now you thinks we over thinks ’em–huh. You whipped the masses into a frenzy— now Woodworkers are trying to out pretty each other–out wood species each other –out Rube Goldberg each other. I made 2 benches in 30 years neither had a through dovetail but many were made on them and I have no idea but I would bet a dollar that neither weighed 280 pounds but they both had tons of wood on them. If you want the bench as a destination god bless but it was intended as a mean. Thats my rant I could be wrong
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I used the factory edge of the half-panel of hardboard as a guide for cutting the ply. I wanted to cut a 5-1/2" strip, and my saw cuts 4-1/2" from the edge of the shoe, so I wanted the edge of the hardboard 10" from the edge of the ply. So I set my combination square to 10", and used it to mechanically set the distance. Hint - if you need two things to be precisely the same length, try to avoid measuring them separately. Use some mechanical mechanism for setting the distance.
Stop it. Really. I mean it. Pick a height between your thigh and waist that seems right. You’ll adapt. Don’t worry about your back. You’ll adapt. If you are really uncertain, make it a little taller and then cut down the legs. After a decade or so, your work habits will put a magic number in your head. You’ll have built enough furniture that you will know your number. Until then, pick a number.
There is a mandatory safety class you have to take where they walk you around the shop and make sure that you know how each major machine works and general shop safety. You also have to sign a waiver saying you are participating at your own risk. You DO NOT have to take that safety class if you are signing up for one of their classes. They will cover those basics during the class.
They immediately tried 2 of the projects, and first found that the instructions were a little vague (so many similar sized/shaped pieces - it was difficult to sort them!). The glue included in the kit had separated, and was not usable - but basic wood glue, which we had on hand, worked just fine. The projects turned out great, and, the time spent working on them was priceless!
Clamp the inner jaw of the end vise in position, leaving a little bit to trim off later, and then use the dowel and dowel center trick through the screw and guiide rod holes of the vise base plate to mark the position of the screw and guide rod holes in the jaw. Remove the jaw and drill 1-1/8" holes in the marked positions. I used the drill guide for most of the holes, and drilled freehand for the last bit. When you're starting a spade bit in a deep hole like this, start the drill very slowly, and the bit will move the drill into a perpendicular position. Start it too fast and the bit will bind and you'll damage the sides of the hole.
My first shop was a 8 x 10 ft room, actually a bedroom, with 10 ft high ceilings in a older home in Chicago. I had a 10" Craftsman TS, drill press, 8 1/4" Skil saw which still works, some welding tanks, hand tools and... my bed was a loft across the 10 ft length 4 ft down from the ceiling with a ladder against the wall to get up. I was 16 yrs old then, now I am 66 yrs, have 2 shops with Craftsman power tools up stairs, and Grizzly tools ,a Powermatic 68, a MIG welder, and other tools on the ground floor. I've come a long way, You think? I remember making bases for sculptures called "plinths", my first commission, in the living room, 5 pieces rather large, several ft long and wide. The house was haunted, and my mom told the "spirit" to leave and go back downstairs. There was a cold draft and the straw chair would rustle with no one sitting in it. Wow, does that bring back memories from the '60's.
This is definitely going to be one of the easiest woodworking projects you’ll be reading about today. So why not just get started? The tutorial link is given below. Just do exactly what they are saying in the tutorial and you will end up making a beautiful wooden doormat just like the one in the image above. They are using pine wood to build this doormat. You can choose any wood material that best suits your budget.
A steam box and a heat source are the two main components used to steam bend wood. Steam boxes must be able to withstand large fluctuations in temperature and humidity without breaking apart. In this two-hour workshop, students will build an optimized steam box that can last through the tough job of steaming wood, allowing them to continue creating their own projects at home!

I agree that even at 12x12, things'll be "cozy" inside. That's OK. Keep in mind that this will be a general purpose hobby shed, not just a wood working shed. Even 12x8 would be plenty big enough for building 1 meter wingspan bungee launched RC gliders. And for the electronics projects I do, I only need enough workbench space to do some soldering with a 3rd hand (for electric guitar pedals). If I need more room than the shed offers for wood working projects, I'll just roll the table saw down a ramp and do my cutting outside in the sun.
Put the countertop on the base, put the MDF on top of the countertop, and line up the marks you drew on each end of the MDF with the countertop below it. When you have it lined up, clamp things down, and route the edge of the MDF using a 1-1/2" or longer flush-trim bit, with the depth adjusted so the bearing rides on the countertop. I clamped a couple of scraps of doubled MDF at each end to give the router base something extra to ride on at the ends.
We have 4 newly expanded Classrooms, 3 state of the art labs with over $275,000 of new machinery, and $600,000 spent on new exhaust and compressed air systems. We have 4 new CNC production machines, a Haas VF-3 CNC Router and a NEWCNC 4×8 multi head machine and 2 Laguna IQ Routers. Even our shop stools (with cushioned backs) are brand new. We have new course offerings such as our Computer Design Sketchup Class and 8 new Certificate Programs you can choose from.
The Classic Workbench is constructed entirely with in-compression-for-eternity drawbored mortise and tenons. It's as solid as humans can make it, short of growing a tree in the shape of a bench. The bench arrives at your shop completely assembled and ready to use. It doesn't knock down. The bench is built to the highest standards of traditional German craftsmanship in the utopian village of Amana Iowa. Our collaboration with the craftsmen in Amana, along with our experience in traditional workholding has yielded a workbench that is truly heirloom quality, but offered at what we think is a very reasonable price. We consider our flagship Split-Top Roubo as nearing the pinnacle of bench design (if there is such a thing) but we wanted to offer an essential bench built to high standards--an approachable but bulletproof tool for passionate enthusiasts of all levels, but especially intended for those just getting into the craft. Our principal bench maker has been steeped in the craft at the Amana Furniture Shop for nearly 50 years. Needless to say, a century and a half of woodworking tradition in Amana directly back to 19th century Germany speaks for itself. Many of the Amana craftsmen are multi-generational woodworkers.
1. You mention doing other hobbies which I assume means stuff scattered around for various projects. (Don't tell me you do one at a time or are a neat freak!!!) How tall are the side walls to the shed? How high do you shuffle stuff around, i.e. flipping things over, moving wood around, etc? I can't imagine trying to do that in my shed, even if it were 2 ft higher than it's 7 ft center height. If you could build a platform in front it may help, especially if you can put removable cover over it (to please HOA).